MNC Engineering LLC is pleased to present a new and unique 4 cylinder internal combustion engine that is far superior to any available today in terms of fuel efficiency, compactness and good looks. An axial design, this engine features variable compression ratios, constant volume combustion, over expansion, rotary valves and water injection giving an incredible 72 % increase in fuel efficiency.
To demonstrate the improved design concept of the Hyper4 engine, a comparison is made between a standard 4 stroke, 4 piston, spark ignition, crankshaft and poppet valve configured internal combustion engine (ICE) and the new and unique 4 stroke, 4 piston, spark ignition, double cam internal combustion engine (patented) utilizing two nested counter-rotating barrel cams, rotary valves and water injection. The energy distribution charts provide a comparison of energy usage at both partial and full loads for the three energy groups (friction is included within the cooling) where red represents the standard engine in general use today and the new axial engine proposed here is in green. These figures were determined using Converge CFD and Matlab Simulink modelling software.
Red = Standard Crankshaft Engine
Green = New Axial Engine
In the Partial Load graph usable work has increased to 43% from 25% which represents a 72% increase in fuel efficiency. The Full Load graph shows a 50% increase in fuel efficiency. In other words, if you were getting 25 mpg on your old engine, you would now be getting 43 mpg, which is an extra 18 miles per gallon.
The increase in fuel efficiency is comprised of 5 individual characteristics that are unique to the axial engine.
1. Variable Compression ratio (VCR) allows the engine’s compression ratio to vary during engine operation in order to have the most
efficient thermodynamic condition, dependent on load and other factors. At partial load this increases efficiency by up to 27% and at full load by 5%
2. Constant Volume Combustion (CVC) ensures that the ignition and burning of the air/fuel mixture occurs in a fixed volume of space in the combustion chamber. At partial load this increases efficiency by up to 13% and at full load by 7%.
3. Over Expansion (OE) allows the piston to physically travel further in the expansion (power) stroke than in the intake stroke (ie:1.7:1) which enables the engine to utilize the energy normally wasted in the exhaust as heat. At partial load this increases efficiency by up to 7% and at full load by 12%.
4. Water Injection (WI) during the compression, combustion and expansion strokes (a 4th during intake is optional) reduces pumping losses, allows
ratios, minimizes pollutant production and recovers some latent heat normally
lost to the cooling system. At partial load this increases efficiency by up to
17% and at full load by 21%.
5. Linear/Reciprocal Motion (LRM) of the pistons and connecting rods minimizes piston cocking, wear, friction and vibration. At partial load this increases efficiency by up to 8% and at full load by 5%.
Theory suggests, that a heat engine can achieve an efficiency factor of about 60-65% at best, but we’re currently a long way from that.
This is why your car gets such lousy gas mileage, 70% of the energy available in a gallon of gas is wasted in heat through the radiator and in hot exhaust gases. Now as you know the engine manufacturers haven’t been keeping still in their attempts to improve the situation, and they have been succeeding, as the average miles per gallon has been steadily rising. They’ve done this by reducing the weight of your vehicle, improving aerodynamics, running hybrid engines at their most efficient speeds, using turbo chargers to recapture some of the exhaust’s wasted heat, and using diesels which run at higher compression ratios and are, therefore, more efficient. However, in the future, these small incremental changes that they’ve managed will become few and far between and much more costly.
What they haven’t done, however, is look at or change the basic format of the engine. An engineer from 1900, looking at today’s engine would immediately recognize it for what it is. The design is locked in, which would be ok if it was a good design, but it isn’t. Not for today anyway. And it’s important to note that the ideas to improve fuel efficiency, as expressed here, are not new. They’ve been around and studied for quite a long time. The problem is that most of them cannot be easily applied to the standard engine, and that is why the configuration has to change. The new configuration, presented here, will give us that one “giant” leap forward that we need to usher in a new automotive age.